Interior architecture is a design-based profession that uses scientific and technical knowledge to provide comfortable living spaces by responding to the functional needs of the user as well as meeting his aesthetic demands. It is also defined as the organization by examining of the physical characteristics, human factors, psychological values, and physiological, ergonomic, and socio-economic criteria of the architectural structure in a way to meet the user needs.
Interior architecture is a professional discipline that deals with structural and non-structural interventions in space to meet the spiritual and psychological needs of individuals, including branches such as psychology, sociology, ergonomics, architecture, economics, and art. Everything that makes up an interior space falls within the scope of the interior architecture profession. While the interior architect makes the building more livable, he also makes sure it is ergonomic and comfortable.
The decoration on the other hand, unlike interior architecture, is not interested in buildings and their construction aspect. Decoration, which can also be defined as furniture layout, is more interested in color and design. It pays attention to the harmony between the furniture used in terms of texture, color, pattern, and size.
Regardless of the type and purpose of use of the space, there is human on the basis of design. Customer needs are prioritized from the beginning to the end of the project. Determining and meeting customer needs with the right suggestions is the most important priority for the success of the project.
The process of making an interior space functionally operating and satisfying in aesthetic terms consists of many phases. The first step in this process, which must be promoted gradually, starts with defining the customer needs and project goals. Then the condition and floor plans of the space are checked. The legal regulations that may be required to secure during the construction period are examined. After the concept of the space is determined, the design phase is started with appropriate graphic and written methods. Compliance of the proposed design solutions with the laws is checked. Contractors and engineers that are needed during the construction phase are contacted.
After the preliminary budget is prepared, the first concept is presented to the customer. Following the detailed meeting with the customer, space, and furniture plans are clarified. Material and product specifications are determined and a precise budget is made. All legal transactions related to plans are audited and verified. After the preparation of light and ceiling plans, facets and sections, perspectives, and material samples that will enable the design to rise, the project is presented to the customer again and then the application phase is started.
At the end of the design process, the aim is to present a product and a project that meets the expectations. The design must be suitable for aesthetic, practical, and economic purposes. While by aesthetic purposes we mean form, material, texture, color, and workmanship, practical purposes express the functionality of the product produced. Economic purposes, on the other hand, refer to concerns in materials, labor, maintenance, cleaning, storage, and transportation.
The prerequisite in the design is functionality. This functionality aims at achieving the physical, ergonomic, and psychological harmony of the user with practical products. Important points to be considered in the design process are listed as follows.
Furniture has become one of the most important indicators of the quality of life over time and is one of the issues of increasing importance from past to present. Today, furniture is defined as functional, useful and aesthetic elements in spaces, made of various materials, created for people to live, work, and meet their social and cultural needs safely and comfortably. Space has the feature of influencing and shaping the furniture and the furniture does the same thing for space. At the same time, the furniture establishes a bond between the users of the space and space itself. The expectation of individuals from furniture is the combination of basic factors such as ease of use, functionality, aesthetics, strength, and health.
Furniture has been classified in many different ways, such as according to its function, areas of use, structure, purpose, style, material and surface processing, and user. In the interior design process, the form, size, circulation scheme, facade space, etc. of the space affects the furniture features that can be used in that space. Any incompatibility may cause the user to be unhappy and to have dissatisfaction. Providing the right suggestions to customer needs is one of the main goals of interior architects.
Textile, which is the final touch of interior projects, is one of the issues to be paid attention to. To choose from a wide variety of textile alternatives during the interior design and application phase, the benchmark of these products is calculated in terms of aesthetics, performance, health, safety, and cost. The selection of fabrics, the harmony of contrasting colors, and the correct use of the lines determined in the design are very important. A systematic way should be followed to choose the most suitable product for the purpose.
Within the application project, floor plan, wall plan, ceiling plan, mechanical plans, electrical plans, sections, facets, perspectives, furniture, and manufacturing details are drawn. After the exact details of the project are determined and mutual agreement is reached, the implementation and construction phase begins.
Since the customer needs have accurately been defined and planned at the beginning of the project, the customer can easily continue his daily life with the information he receives from the interior architect during the implementation process.
The concept of comfort can be defined as an expression of a sense of satisfaction in the mind when living conditions meet people's expectations or go beyond their expectations. Space must meet the visual, auditory, and thermal needs of the individual living in it.
This state of comfort refers to the physiological adaptation of the person and his environment by spending minimum energy and psychological satisfaction with the environment. Thermal comfort is also defined as the conditions in which a person is satisfied with his climatic environment.
Thermal comfort conditions should be provided with minimum energy for energy conservation. Meeting the necessary conditions is one of the first steps of the design and construction phase.
Acoustic Comfort is to determine and apply the echo properties and acoustic insulation suitable for the functions required by the building to provide a comfortable sound distribution. Thanks to the developments in building technologies, building materials have diversified and become functional and ultra-comfortable.
Light is one of the most important elements of a space and visual perception is out of the question without light. The quality of light and its sophistication used in the building determine the quality of the space. People are sensitive to brightness, density, contrast, and color. Therefore, the type of light used is very important for human psychology and spiritual serenity.
For the spaces to be perceived by the person using them in three and four dimensions, certain lighting conditions are required. The visibility of the space is directly dependent on appropriate and creative lighting. The purpose of the lighting is to minimize the energy spent without compromising the quality of vision as well as comfort.
One of the important factors to be considered to ensure healthy living conditions is ventilation. Indoor air quality is directly proportional to human health and efficiency from work. The better the ventilation is, the better the living conditions are. Effective air systems can be created with passive and natural air conditioning.
Developments in building materials are one of the dimensions of the relationship between interior architecture and technology. There are trends for natural materials less aggressive towards the environment. Besides, new materials and building systems are produced as a result of the search for reusable, recyclable, and biodegradable materials. Water-based, acrylic, solvent-free, and volatile organic components are now used instead of oil-based paints that are harmful to health.
Visualization of spaces and objects is the fundamental point of technical drawing and design. Today, developing software and hardware technologies have become a powerful alternative in terms of expressing interior architectural designs, and drawing techniques in the architectural field have become a universal visual communication instrument. These techniques served to visually convey the designed content and applications. Although two-dimensional drawings are the basis of architectural design, the views reflected on the screen in computer-aided drawing programs are two-dimensional images of the three-dimensional work.
It is a known fact that spaces designed by considering the potential expectations of the user will positively affect the mood, psychological structuring, and even his identity. The behavior pattern of people living in a building or an interior with a good design is influenced. Design is a factor that affects all events, such as experiencing unrest. In Zevi's words, The distinguishing characteristics of architecture are its existence in the three-dimensional space which includes the individual. The sculpture is three-dimensional, but man remains outside it. On the contrary, architecture is like a hollow sculpture, one enters it, walks, and lives there.
The turnkey project, which means the delivery of the building in a ready-to-use form, is the most accurate project form. In such projects, the interior architect makes the design and calculates all expenses, and conveys them to the customer. At the end of the project, the customer pays the specified amount and gets the building ready. In projects where all expenses including labor are covered by the contractor, that is, the designer, the customer has the opportunity to follow up from beginning to end. Therefore, the project proceeds in mutual trust.
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